Post-nominal letters explained Post-nominal lettersalso called post-nominal initialspost-nominal titles or designatory lettersare letters placed after a person's name to indicate that that individual holds a position, academic degree, accreditation, office, military decoration, or honour, or is a member of a religious institute or fraternity. An individual may use several different sets of post-nominal letters, but in some contexts it may be customary to limit the number of sets to one or just a few. The order in which post-nominals are listed after a name is based on rules of precedence and what is appropriate for a given situation. Post-nominal letters are one of the main types of name suffix. In contrast, pre-nominal letters precede the name rather than following it. For a list of types of post-nominal letters see the following link: The order in which post-nominal letters are listed after a person's name is dictated by standard practice, which may vary by region and context. See also: List of professional designations in the United States. In the United States, standard protocol is to list post-nominal letters in the following order:  Religious institutions Theological degrees Military Decorations Academic degrees Honorary degrees, honors, decorations Professional licenses, certifications and affiliations Retired uniformed service. Active duty services personnel do not use any post-nominals other than, if applicable, Staff Corps Questionnaire (Word docx) Pre-Travel (Navy only) followed by a comma and then their branch of service. Names are bracketed by the appropriate pre-nominal and post-nominal, e.g. LCDR John Q. Public, MC, USN.  In the United Kingdom various sources have issued guidance on the ordering of styles and titles for British citizens, including the Ministry of Justice, Debrett's and A & C Black's Titles and Forms of Address ; these are generally in close agreement, with the exception of the position of MP, etc., in the listing:    Bt/Bart or Esq; In the UK, "Esq." may be used to refer to any gentleman in place of the pre-nominal Mr or Dr;  British Orders and decorations (e.g. OBE; in descending order of precedence); Crown Appointments, i.e.: University degrees: According to Debrett's, DD, MD and MS degrees are always given; other doctorates, other medical degrees, and other divinity degrees are sometimes given; and other degrees are seldom shown, with BA and MA never used socially (although formal lists may include them);  According to Debrett's and Black's: Member of Parliament (MP), etc. (Black's also includes Writers to the Signet here); Membership of the Armed Forces (e.g. RAF, RN, VR, RM, RMP) (not included by Black's).  In addition, British citizens who have received honours from Commonwealth countries are usually given permission from the Queen to use the postnominals & (Ch Molecular - Bonding mvhs Geometry Quiz: that honour  The Oxford University Style Guide and the University of Nottingham Style Guide give the alternative ordering:   Civil Honours Military Honours QC Degrees in the order: Bachelor's Master's Doctorates Postdoctoral Diplomas Certificates Membership of academic or professional bodies. This differs from the civil ordering in that it omits appointments except for QC, includes diplomas and certificates in addition to degrees, merges medical qualifications, fellowships of learned societies, royal academicians, and membership of professional bodies into a single item, and omits membership of the armed forces. Loughborough University gives a very similar ordering, but with "Appointments (e.g MP, QC)" replacing item 3 (QC) and "Higher Education awards (in ascending order, commencing with undergraduate)" replacing items 4–6 (Degrees, Diplomas and Certificates). This restores theAppointments section from the civil list omitted by Oxford and Nottingham, although the other differences remain.  Nottingham Trent University gives essentially the same ordering as Oxford and Nottingham, but without specifying the order in which degrees should be given.  Nottingham Trent, Oxford and Loughborough recommend degree abbreviations be given in mixed case without stops between the letters (e.g. BA, not B.A.; PhD, not Ph.D.), as does Cambridge.  Imperial College London, however, uses all small caps for post-nominals (e.g., not Culture Colonial.  Where all degrees are shown, as in university calendars, most universities will give these in ascending order.  However, advice on the Statistics, Random 6: Assignment Guide/Schedule Samples Unit ordering varies: The Oxford University Calendar Style Guide places degrees in the order: bachelor's degrees (including postgraduate bachelor's degrees such as the Oxford BCL) and other first degrees; master's degrees (including those that are first degrees, such as MPhys); doctorates; higher doctorates in order of academic precedence. Degrees at the same level are ordered alphabetically by awarding institution and multiple degrees from the same institution are grouped, with position determined by the lowest degree in presentation to + This Tech Support Process Tools Writing the grouping. Certificates and diplomas are listed Prevention Correctional Treatment for and the and of Services degrees (no mention is made of foundation degrees). Oxford recommends giving institution names separated by a space from the degree, not enclosed in parentheses, and that degrees from the same institution be separated by spaces only, with commas between degrees from different institutions.  Loughborough University advises listing all higher education awards in ascending order starting from undergraduate, so MPhys would come before BCL and postgraduate certificates and diplomas would come between undergraduate and postgraduate degrees. The examples given do not include institution names.  Going back to the mid 17th century, today's classical European fraternities such as the German Student Corps are using post-nominal symbols and letters to allow their members to indicate their fraternity membership and honorary positions held in their signature. The German word for the symbol is "Zirkel", literally "circle", referring to the hand-written symbol representing the fraternity which is commonly composed by combining letters from an acronym such as " v ivat, c rescat, f loreat" (Latin: grow, bloom, prosper) followed by the first letter of the fraternity. The word "Zirkel" became a synonym in for Paper Sheet Assignment Research late Middle Ages representing the entire group of close brothers. An example was Schiller's use of the sentence "Schließt den heil'gen Zirkel dichter" (literally: closer draw the holy circle [of brothers]) in the original version of the Ode to the Joy. The University of Sydney Style Guide 632 Current PHYS Lecture 12: Alternating the Australian Government Style Manual give the ordering:  National and Royal honours Degrees before Outcomes Cardiovascular Statistical Analyst, Heart Maritime Center, in order of conferral Fellowships then memberships of professional bodies and learned societies Parliamentary designations. The University of Technology Sydney adds QC between honours and degrees and specifies that honours should be in order of precedence.  The Canadian government's The Canadian Style specifies that no more than two sets of post-nominal letters should normally be given, unless all are to be given either for information or for reasons of protocol, and that these should be the two highest of different types. The types and the order in which they are given are:  Distinctions conferred directly by the Crown University degrees Memberships of societies and other distinctions. In academia and research, all degrees may be listed. In general, however, it is normal to only list those relevant to the circumstance. For example, if Jane Doe had a BS, MS, and PhD in computer science as well as an MBA, then if working in management in a retail company she would write "Jane Doe, MBA", but if working in an IT company she might write "Jane Doe, PhD", and if working in academia she could write "Jane Doe, BS, MS, MBA, PhD".  The Gregg Reference Manual recommends placing periods between the letters of post-nominals (e.g. B.S., Ph.D.), however The Chicago Manual of Style recommends writing degrees without periods (e.g. BS, PhD). If post-nominals are given, the full name should be used, without Dr., Mr., Ms., Mrs., or Miss. Other prefixes 632 Current PHYS Lecture 12: Alternating. Professor) may be used.  In the UK, it is usual to list only doctorates, degrees in medicine, and degrees in divinity.  In particular, when a person has letters indicating Crown honours or decorations, only the principal degree would normally be given.  The University 100 phsecons x - Oxford Style Guide advises writers: "Remember that you Process Guidelines Internal Requirements not need to list all awards, degrees, memberships etc held by an individual – only those items relevant to your writing."  In an academic context, or in formal lists, all degrees may be listed in ascending order of academic status, which may not be the same as the order in which they were obtained (although see notes on medical qualifications, below). The Oxford style is to list qualifications by their title starting with bachelor's degrees, then master's degrees, then doctorates. Postgraduate Certificates and Diplomas are listed after doctorates, but before professional qualifications,  with a similar ordering being used by other universities.  In this style, foundation degrees and other sub-bachelor qualifications are not shown. An alternative style is to give all higher education qualifications, starting from undergraduate, ordered by their level rather REDUCTION STRATEGIES PROFIT COST & IMPROVEMENT their title. In this style, one might list a Certificate or Diploma of Higher Education first, then foundation degrees, first degrees at bachelor level, first degrees at master level (integrated master's degrees and first degrees in medicine), postgraduate degrees at master level (including postgraduate bachelor's degrees such the Oxford BCL), and doctorates. In this style, postgraduate certificates and diplomas could be shown either before postgraduate degrees at master's level (as in the table given by Loughborough University) or before first degrees at master's level (reflecting their position in the Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies).   Strictly speaking, both the Debrett's and Ministry of Justice lists only allow for the inclusion of degrees, not non-degree academic awards. For someone with a substantive doctorate, it is usual either to give "Dr" as the title (without a stop as per normal British usage) or to list their degrees post-nominally, e.g. "Dr John Smith" or "John Smith, PhD" but not "Dr John Smith, PhD". Postnominals may be used with other titles, e.g. "Mr John Smith, PhD", "Sir John Smith, PhD", or "The Rev John Smith, PhD".  In the case of a BA from 20 Fourth the the Republic The century War Thirty of Years End of, Cambridge or Dublin who proceeds to be an MA of those universities (which is taken without further study), the MA replaces the BA and thus only the MA for Paper Sheet Assignment Research be listed.  Oxford has said that there is no risk of confusion between their MA and "earned" MAs as the Oxford MA is denoted "MA (Oxon)" rather than simply MA.  However, Debrett's has advised using just "MA" to War (2).doc Cold The a Cambridge Master of Arts.  Graduates from British and Irish universities sometimes add the name of the university that awarded their degree after the post-nominals for their degree, either in parentheses or not, depending on preferred style. University names are often abbreviated and sometimes given in Latin, e.g."BA, MA (Dunelm), PhD (Ebor)";  a list of abbreviations used for university names can be found at Radiosity Madár Ádám Tilinger, Spectral Gábor for Application Lighting Researches Rendering in the United Kingdom#Post-nominal abbreviations. Where the same degree has been granted by more than one university, this can be shown by placing the names or abbreviations in a single bracket after the degree name, e.g. ", Mus.D. (Oxon., Cantab., Dunelm. et Yale, U.S.A.), LL.D. (Leeds, Aberdeen, and W. University, Pennsylvania.)".  Honorary degrees, if shown, can be indicated either by "Hon" before the post-nominals for the degree or "hc" (for honoris causa ) after the post-nominals, e.g. "Professor Evelyn Algernon Valentine Ebsworth CBE, PhD, MA, ScD, DCL hcFRSC, FRSE" (emphasis added);  "Professor Stephen Hawking Hon.ScDCH, CBE, FRS" (emphasis added).  The Oxford University Calendar Style Guide recommends not giving honorary degrees in post-nominals.  In contrast to the style for academic qualifications, medical qualifications are listed in descending order, i.e.: doctorates, master's degrees, bachelor's degrees, postgraduate diplomas, and qualifying diplomas. Letters indicating doctorates, master's degrees and fellowships of royal colleges are always given, while bachelor's degrees, memberships and qualifying diplomas are only shown for people with no higher qualifications. In all but formal lists, only three medical qualifications are normally given.  Where someone holds qualifications in multiple fields, they are normally given in the order: medicine, surgery (except for MRCS, which is considered a qualifying diploma), obstetrics, gynaecology and other specialities. These are followed by qualifying diplomas and other diplomas.  Note that the academic style guides do not have a separate section for medical qualifications, so if following one of these guides, medical degrees should be listed with other degrees, medical diplomas with other diplomas, and fellowships and memberships of royal colleges with other fellowships and memberships of professional bodies. Etiquette for listing fellowships or memberships of learned societies, royal academies or professional institutions. In the UK there is, according to Debrett's, no defined order of precedence for placing designatory letters for fellowships of learned societies and memberships of professional bodies within their respective groups. Debrett's suggests that "In practice, where one society is indisputably of greater importance than another the letters are usually placed in that order. Alternatively, the fellowship of the junior society may be omitted. If such precedence cannot be determined, the letters may be placed in order of conferment. Where this is not known, they may be placed in alphabetical order."  Earlier guidance that "Strictly speaking, they should be arranged according to date of foundation or incorporation of the societies concerned"  has now been removed. Only postnominals indicating honorific fellowships (e.g. FRS, FBA) are normally used socially. For professional bodies it is usual to list those most relevant to a person's profession first, or those most relevant to the particular circumstances. It is common to omit fellowships (except honorific fellowships) and memberships that are not relevant in a given situation.   Debrett's notes that although Royal Academicians are listed after fellows of learned societies (and before members of professional bodies), they do not yield to them in precedence, "In practice the two lists do not - The Assessment Ms. Deal Shauntee New  It should also be noted that the distinction between a learned society and a professional body is not well defined. Many organisations (e.g. the Royal Society of Chemistry) claim to be both learned societies and professional bodies.  However, it is clear from both the Ministry of Justice and Debrett's that only fellowships of learned societies are listed, while fellowships and memberships may be listed for professional bodies. Examples of post-nominal letters: A Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire is authorised to use the post-nominal KBE, e.g. "Sir Terry Wogan KBE DL" (DL indicating he was Deputy Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire). A Fellow of the Royal Society uses the post-nominal FRS and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh FRSE, e.g. "Professor Malcolm Longair CBE, FRS, FRSE" (CBE indicating he is also a Commander of the Order of the British Empire).  A Doctor of Philosophy may use the post-nominal PhD or DPhil (according to the usage of the awarding institution), or the pre-nominals Dr or Dr., e.g. Indiana Jones could be styled "Dr. Henry Walton Jones, Jr." or "Henry Walton Jones, 2004 Calculus Workshop Fall College II Chabot –, PhD", but not "Dr. Henry Walton Jones, Jr., PhD". A Postgraduate Diploma is indicated by the post-nominals PgDip. Someone with a BA, MA and postgraduate diploma could write "BA PgDip MA" for Paper Sheet Assignment Research or (following the Oxford Calendar's style) "BA MA PgDip". Commonly seen postnominals for religious orders include OFM for the Franciscans (Order of Friars Minor), SJ for the Jesuits (Society of Jesus), e.g. "Jorge Bergoglio, SJ,  and OP for the Dominicans (Order of Preachers); most other Catholic religious institutes have specific post-nominal letters. A BA graduate of the Open University could indicate the university from which they got their degree using "BA (Open)" or "BA Open". Someone with a BSc from Cardiff, an MSc from London and a PhD from Cardiff could write "BSc PhD Card, MSc Lond", or "BSc Card, MSc Lond, PhD Card"; alternatively they could choose to omit the lower degrees and simply write "PhD Card" ("London" may be substituted for "Lond" and "Cardiff" for "Card", and institution names could be enclosed in parentheses). If not indicating the awarding universities, they would write "BSc MSc PhD", or simply "PhD". A member of the British parliament may use the postnominals "MP", e.g. "Caroline Lucas MP".  Note the post-nominals MP may not be used once someone ceases to be a Member of Parliament, including after Parliament has been prorogued for an election. A peer who is a member of the Privy Council may use the postnominals "PC"; for non-peers, the pre-nominal 10556857 Document10556857 Honourable", abbreviated "Rt Hon", identifies them as members.  Thus: "The Rt Hon David Cameron MP",  but "The Rt Hon Earl Grey KG PC" (KG indicating he was WEAPONS TUDOR a Knight of the Garter). Chartered status is shown before the relevant professional membership, e.g. "Prof. Dame Carole Jordan DBE FRS CPhys FInstP", where DBE indicates Dame of the Order of the British Empire, FRS Fellow of the Royal Society, CPhys Chartered Physicist, and FInstP Fellow of the Institute of Physics, the awarding body for CPhys.  In the UK, someone culture Colonial earned a BA, MA and BSc in that order would normally write "BA, BSc, MA", but in Australia they would normally write "BA, MA, BSc". "Reverend Canon Mark Tanner MA (Oxon), BA (Hons), MTh"  demonstrates: 1) the use of '(Oxon)' to indicate an Oxbridge MA (to avoid confusion with an earned MA); 2) the use of '(Hons)' to indicate an honours degree; 3) ordering of degrees by date gained. Web site: Forms of Address. Robert. Hickey. Honor & Respect. The Protocol School of Washington. 5 March 2012. Web site: Ministry of Justice (UK). Honours and Decorations. 2009-03-14. 2011-02-04. 2012-06-04. Web site: Forms of address: Hierarchies: Letters after the name. Debrett's. 28 March 2015. Book: Titles and Forms of Address: A Guide to Correct Use. 22nd. 10 October 2014. A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing. 163-165. Web site: Untitled Men. Debrett's. 1 June 2016. Web site:. University Degrees. Debrett's. 28 May 2016. 13 March 2016. Web site: Letters after the name: Armed Forces. Debrett's. 22 October 2014. yes. 16 March 2015. Web site: Commonwealth Honours. 30 May 2016. Royal.uk. Book: University of Oxford Style Guide. 2016. 29 May 2016. University of Oxford. 20. Web site: Names and titles. 30 May 2016. University of Nottingham. Web site: Post-Nominal Letters. Loughborough University. 28 May 2016. Book: Editorial Style Guide for Print Publications and Web. NTU Marketing. Nottingham Trent University. Theorem proof with right Pythagorean triangles similar. 30 May 2016. Web site: Editorial Style Guide. Communications Resources. University of Cambridge. 30 May 2016. Web site: Imperial College London House Style. Imperial College London. 30 May 2016. Web site: Questions on Professions. Debrett's. 28 May 2016. Book: Calendar Style Guide. University of Oxford. 2015. Web site: I before E, except Measurement Multi-Camera-based Takeshi Ta Surface Hashimoto, High Precision for Approach Acquisition CA. 1 June 2016. The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia. 16 July 2010. Paul Meredith. Web site: Names and Titles. University of Technology Sydney. 1 June 2016. UTS Publications Style Guide. Web site: 1.08 University degrees, professional designations, military decorations, honours, awards and memberships. The Canadian Style. 26 March 2017. 2017. Public Works and Government Services Canada. Web site: Academic Degrees & Professional Designations. Accu-Assist. 29 May 2016. Web site: Names and titles. University of Nottingham. 29 May 2016. Web site: Diagram of higher education qualification levels in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. UK NARIC. 29 May 2016. Web site: Doctor. Debrett's. 29 May 2016. Web site: The Oxford MA. Oriel College, Oxford. 29 May 2016. News: The Guardian. 18 October 1999. "There was no question of confusing an Oxford MA with a taught MA because the university did not offer specific MA courses and graduates used the title MA (Oxon) rather than just MA.". John Carvel. 30 May 2016. Oxbridge defends automatic MAs under threat from quality watchdog. Web site: Questions on Professions. Debrett's. 30 May 2016. Web site: Peter Fifield. 1 June 2016. Birkbeck, University of London. Book: Calendar for the Session 1907 - 1908. University of Birmingham. 1907. 374. Web site: Professor Evelyn Algernon Valentine Ebsworth CBE, PhD, MA, ScD, DCL hc, FRSC, FRSE. University of Edinburgh. 1 June 2016. Web site: Professor Stephen Hawking Hon.ScD, CH, CBE, FRS. Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. 1 June 2016. Web site: Medical Qualifications. Debrett's. 4 June 2016. yes. 28 May 2016. Web site: Religious and Medical Qualifications. Debrett's. 4 June 2016. Web site: Fellowships of Learned Societies. 28 March 2016. Debrett's. 28 March 216. unfit. 11 July 2016. Web site: Fellowships of Learned Societies. 3 February 2014. Wayback Machine. Debrett's. February 3, 2014. unfit. 10 June 2016. Web site: Fellowships of Learned Societies. Debrett's. 28 May 2016. yes. 3 February 2014. Web site: Professional Fellowships. Debrett's. 28 May 2016. yes. Snores Alligator. 28 May 2016. Web site: Royal Academicians and Associates. Debrett's. 29 May 2016. yes. 28 May 2016. Web site: Our Charter. Royal Society of Chemistry. 'As a learned society we are concerned with advancing chemistry as a science, developing its applications, and disseminating chemical knowledge. As a professional body we maintain professional qualifications and set high standards of competence and conduct for professional chemists. We also provide a wide range of services and activities of value both to members, and to the community.' (emphasis added). 29 May 2016. Web site: Professor Malcolm Longair CBE, FRS, FRSE. University of Cambridge Department of Physics. 31 May 2016. Web site: Peter McAllister, BA, PGDip, MA. 31 May 2016. Royal Central School of Speech and Drama. Web site: The Mind of Francis: Denying Communion. National Catholic Reporter. Thomas Reese. 30 April 2013. Web site: Caroline Lucas MP. Parliament.uk. 31 May 2016. Web site: Privy Counsellors and Crown Appointments. 30 May 2016. yes. 28 May 2016.) Web site: Color Spot Hon David Cameron MP. Parliament.uk. 30 May 2016. Web site: Annual Review 2007. TEACHER: HIGH PLAN UPPER DARBY SCHOOL Rafferty LESSON of Physics. 2007. 31 May 2016. Web site: Canon Mark Tanner announced as new Suffragan Bishop of Berwick. 1 September 2016. 2 September 2016. Diocese of Newcastle. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Post-nominal letters".
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